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children. Hay was gathered from meadows still un­ claimed, especially on the flats of Otter Lake. Cattle became the main source of income and they also had a good flock of sheep. After horses had been acquired, to supplement income, it was regular winter work to haul lumber from the local sawmills to the yards in Min­ nedosa, 25 miles away. Three trips a week were made with the young lads handling teams as well. These were long cold trips for boys who were still not much more than children. Starting early in the morning, they would return the same day, spending the next day preparing the loads for the next trip. At home the pioneer mother milked the cows, which were always her responsibility, and tended to the other chores. In the evenings the boys as well as the girls learned to knit their own mitts and socks. There was time for some fun as well, especially as the river was so near, and young folks gathered to enjoy the "old swimming hole." With gradual progress, by the turn of the century, they had a well-established farm with new buildings and sturdy fences, a herd of sixty cattle and several teams of horses.

Although, uneducated in English and scantily in Swedish, John was so fond of reading that he acquired a good knowledge of the English language. This led to his often being called upon to assist other immigrants in their business correspondence, even to the extent of helping them register their babies. He also acquired considerable ability as a veterinarian and often assisted his neighbours in this capacity. Interested in public affairs, he served for many years as the secretary-treasurer of the Scandinavia School District. He was one of the early councillors of the R.M. of Clanwilliam, and was also Reeve for a few years. During this time he was responsible for the surveying and building of many of the roads in the outlying areas of the Municipality.

By the end of the Great War, they found themselves alone on the farm. The prosperity of the community was not the lasting thing the pioneers had expected. The soil had proved to be shallow and light and soon became impoverished. There was little to see them through the declining years. In 1925, Lovisa passed away and for a few years John lived on there alone. Late in 1932, he left the old home and made his home with his son, Henry. For a while he was happy with the new arrangement, keeping busy with splitting, sorting and piling wood, a life-time passion, and hoeing in his son's orchard. In­ dependent in his old age, as in his youth, he decided to make his home in Minnedosa. For about ten years he took excellent care of himself in a rented house. He was blessed with good health and excellent eyesight, so he still read the Free Press Prairie Farmer, the Family Herald, and the Minnedosa Tribune from cover to cover, ad­ vertisements and all, and kept up with current affairs. His conversation, however, always went back to the pioneer days and tales of his experiences. He died in 1945 in his 85th year.

Their Family:

Charlie homesteaded the N.W. of Sec. 30-18-17W as soon as he was old enough and lived there until his un­ timely death in 1942. He was a keen gardener and for many years sold vegetables in Erickson and the surrounding area. He liked to experiment with new

varieties as well as growing various small fruits. He was one of the early trustees of Nedrob School and also was janitor for some years.

Jenny left home to work in Winnipeg and Minneapolis.

She trained as a seamstress and this became her vocation. She became ill with the dreaded disease of tuberculosis, or consumption as it was commonly called at that time, and came home from Winnipeg for the last months of her life, and she died there in 1910.

Henry - refer to Carlson, Henry and Emma.

Fred homesteaded for a time on the S.E. of 36-18-18W prior to going to British Columbia where he worked as a logger, and in sawmills in the virgin forests on the mainland as well as on Vancouver Island. In later years he purchased an acreage in Burnaby where he also en­ joyed gardening. In 1937, he married, but his wife died a short ten years later, and he was once more alone. He died in 1977 in Vancouver at the age of 85.

Mary married Henry Holmstrom of Basswood and they made their home there for many years. They had two children: Arthur, still in Basswood, and Gladys in Moose Jaw. Mary died in Moose Jaw in 1979.

John and Lovisa, Charlie, Jenny, and Fred are all buried in the family plot in the Scandinavia Lutheran Cemetery.

It is a joy today to drive through the pretty countryside of Scandinavia and see it once again looking prosperous. With the improvement of farming techniques, the soil is once again productive and many fine homes house a new generation. Many of these are descendants of another hard-working ethnic group of people, the immigrants from Poland and the Ukraine.

HAK-NIKLAS AND KLARA

After the Carlson's were settled in Scandinavia, his foster parents Niklas and Klara Hak came to their home in 1889 and remained there for about two years. In spite of their age, they homesteaded the S.W. of Sec. 16-18- 17W. Mrs. Hak, like most Scandinavian women, was very fond of her cows, and regretted that she knew no English so that she could talk to them! They were known as very kind people which was evidenced in their giving a home to orphaned children when they had none of their own. Another nephew, Carl Bengtson, made his home with them on his arrival from Sweden.

Mr. Hak was active in the organization of the Scan­ dinavia Church and she in the women's society. Finding the pioneer situation beyond their strength, they returned to Sweden in 1903.

God grant me the serenity to accept the things that can't be changed,

The courage to change the things that can be changed, And the wisdom to know the difference.

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