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she would know where he was. He could read and write in Polish and as the alphabet was the same he learned English faster than she did. Jim Runner was their first Indian visitor. He would bring fish and beaded moccasins to trade for bread, eggs and other food.

Danvers, Manitoba

23rd March, 1902

Re File No. 354073, NW 11416-18-18 West To the Secretary,

Department of the Interior

Ottawa, Ontario

Dear Sirs; - Could I get the above quarter section as a homestead? In this connection I beg to explain as follows:

According to an old record I have kept ever since I left Norway for this country on the 28th day of April, 1886, with the interest of taking up land in Manitoba, I was delayed on the voyage two or three times for several days at a time; the first time being at Liverpool waiting for the old "Beaver" liner which was to take us across the pond. Then in the middle of the ocean when something went wrong with the machinery which kept her for forty-eight hours drifting on the Atlantic and at last the fogs under Newfoundland kept us back a considerable time. Finally, there was a wreckage on the C.P.R. at Pembrover, Ontario. However, I arrived at Winnipeg on Thursday, 14th of June, left for Minnedosa next day, and went out to locate a homestead on the following day, came back and made entry for the S.W. 114 16-18-18W, on the 19th of June 1886 according to the certificate of entry, which I still have. From this it will be seen that there was no delay on my part in finding a homestead, and that it is very reasonable to suppose that had the chances of journeying been more favourable I would in all probability have made the entry on or before the second day of June, 1886.

I resided upon the land for two years, subsequent to the entry, and in fact during this time I completed all the necessary improvements, built a house 16X20 feet, another small building, 12X12 feet, and a fine log stable 32X46 (the latter was burnt down two years later), broke ten acres the first year and cleared and broke three acres respectively during each of the following two years, put up fences, etc. But when my parents then took up a homestead I went to live with them, though I always kept working my own place during that time. Accordingly it appears that I had practically completed my duties within the proper limit of time, all with the exception of the last six months residence, which I did not fulfill till sometime afterwards, having lived with my parents and worked my own place in the meantime. Lastly, I beg to point out that so many of the older settlers have had second homesteads and even pre-emptions as well and myself having been a continuous resident of this part and contributed my share towards maintaining roads and public institutions as well as they, am now hampered and debarred from these

privileges, practically speaking, only on account of an unfortunate delay on the voyage coming out to this country. This again is particularly more unfortunate, as Government Lands cannot now even be bought for money and a poor man is thus shut off from the last chance of securing a place suitable for pasture at a moderate cost, especially as I have lately bought a few high-class Shorthorn cattle at a great sacrifice, is this situation simply a hardship. I beg to refer you to Messieurs Meyers and Thompson of Minnedosa as to my character and reliability, and would consider it a great favour if you would kindly bring this letter to the per­ sonal notice of the chief of your department, the honourable Mr. Sifton.

Thanking you in anticipation I am Yours respectfully, Olaf Stone

P .S. For the privilege of some other quarter section if the one in question cannot be had.

-O.S. -

Editor's Note: The above letter from the Manitoba Archives indicates one settler's problem in receiving title to his land.


by C.M. Gronlund

Port Coquitlam, B. C. in 1969

It was on July the 8th, 1914, a very hot dry day. The sun was beating down and there was not a breeze to be felt, but towards evening it started to cloud up in the far horizon in the west. It was fifty-five years ago, but I can still remember that day as plain as if it had happened yesterday--that hair-rising experience which took place about seven o'clock that same evening.

My father had bought the farm the year before and he and my uncle, Mr. Holm had been working up the place. The house was finished and they were working on the barn that day in the sweltering heat. My dad was anxious to get the buildings finished because he was to move the family over the very next week from the old homestead, about seven miles to the east of this new farm. I was helping the men off and on with the building but my main job was to cook their meals.

Around five o'clock my Dad asked me to go in and prepare supper. After I got the food prepared and got it perking on the stove, I went out to the woodpile to split some more wood as it looked like it might rain later in the evening and I wanted lots of dry wood and kindling in the house. I had a little golden-haired spaniel of my own and I had her trained to do almost everything but talk. I had trained her to carry the wood into the house, but since she was unable to put in into the high woodbox, she brought it in and piled it behind the kitchen stove. Of course as a fourteen year old boy, I was quite proud that I had my dog so well-trained that I didn't have to bring in the