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wooded soils, the organic matter is low and therefore these soils are infertile. Addition of organic matter by manuring, returning combine straw, ploughing in green cover crops and growing grasses and legumes is necessary to make the soil productive. The use of commercial fertilizers will increase yields of grain and pasture crops. These practices are necessary even on the grey-black soils in order to maintain their productivity at a satisfactory level.

FARMING

In early 1880's was about the time settlers emigrated from the Scandinavian countries and settled in the Rural Municipality of Clanwilliam.

Very few were farmers, largest percentage were bushmen coming from lumber mill centres also fisher­ men, carpenters, stone masons and what have you.

This particular part of the country was very rough, covered with willows, poplar sloughs, swamps and lakes. As you came north of Hilltop Post Office, there were spruce and birch, the land was very stony and very valuable as timber. Several sawmills were started, which created jobs. All was done by hand, with an axe and the grubhoe. Stumps, willows and trees had to be grubbed out by the root, so land could be broken or plowed with oxen and horses.

Stephen Kallberg, with stump-puller, helped to open a road near Danvers.

Later stump-pullers was used, also dynamite to blow the big stumps out, which made it easier to clear the land. The first grain was cut and put on a platform and the flail used to thresh it. Then steam engines came along and were used for power on sawmills, shingle-mills, breaking land, and threshing crops. The big threshing outfits had seven to eight stook teams, four field pitchers, a tank man, engineer, fireman, a separator man, and eighteen to twenty men in all.

Then the smaller threshing machines became more common, and fewer teams and men were needed. Many immigrants worked on these gangs to obtain money for their needs. In the early twenties the small gas tractor came into being. In the middle thirties the gas tractor was improved as a field tractor, with dust-proof bearings and air cleaners. In the forties the horse and horse implements disappeared from the fields. Tractors and power im-

plements was the talk of the day. Then came bull-dozers which made short work of clearing land. When the combine came, it did away with the binder, stooking and threshing. Less man power was required, the truck for hauling grain was equipped with hydraulic dump box, grain auger's which delivered grain right into the grain bins. Both tractors and combines have been improved since they became popular. The tractor increased from one hundred to two hundred horse power from steel wheels to rubber tires. Two-wheel to four-wheel drives, equipped with cabs, radio, heaters and air conditioners. Zero tillage is used by some farmers. Seed is dri11ed right into the stubble. Fertilizer is used for increased production.

Plowing the field.

Breaking the sod.

Roy Shellborn Discing.

Breaking new land.

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