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bined with the collapse of the Waisenamts in the 1930's, had largely extricated the Church from the socio-economic realm in Rhineland. Participation in the co-ops did not threaten church unity and in fact a number of Sommerfelder Church ministers sat on co-op boards. Ac­ cording to one early Rhineland co-operator, almost all Sommerfelder and Bergthaler ministers utilized the co-operative oil station when it opened. The lone exception to this was Bishop David Schulz of the Bergthaler Church, who had personal differences with co-op leader 1. 1. Siemens. 39

David Schulz - Bishop of the Bergthaler Mennonite Church 1925-1964. David Schulz was born in 1895 and married on July 24, 1919. Ordained a minister of the Bergthaler Mennonite Church in 1920, he was elected Bishop of the Church when Jacob Hoeppner stepped down in 1925. Ordained while still comparatively young, Schulz took control of the Church with a strong hand. Charismatic, intelligent and a shrewd administrator he was dedicated to the cause of Evangelism and Christian education, and fulfilled the role of a Men­ nonite Elder who led his people through serious problems and difficulties. During World War II he worked tirelessly for draft­ age Mennonite boys often re-establishing C.O. status for those who had carelessly lost it. He was also the last of the tradi­ tional elders of the Bergthaler Church who felt they had a duty to lead all local churches and keep the central Church

strong enough so that the local church would remain under the central Lehrdienst. He also watched his Lehrdienst carefully so that no false teaching might creep in. Under his direction the Bergthaler Church grew from three houses of worship and 1,162 members to twenty houses of worship and more than 3,000 members. He retired in 1964 due to poor health.

Schulz's dispute with Siemens and Siemens's disassociation with the Mennonite Church first arose in connection with the Bergthaler Waisenamt. During the depression when the Waisenarnt had begun to experience financial difficulties, 1. 1. Siemen's father, Johan Siemens, had criticized the use of orphan funds to cover bad loans. 1. 1. Siemens then publicly questioned the ethics of this policy and in the process attacked one of the Waisenamt's directors, David Schulz. In the contro­ versy that followed, a major split occurred between the Bergthaler