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R. Foster, hardware merchant; Andrew Firsch, tinsmith; Philip Erbach, flax purchaser for Livingstone Brothers; and Otto Schultz.

In 1884 Queen's Hotel was built, another elevator, McBean, was erected, and many other businesses were started: P. Reid opened a harness business; Alexander Smith began a livery service; R. B. Fisher launched another hardware store; H. Braun built a liquor store; David Peters of Blumenort established a general store; the Massey Company set up another implement dealership with Max Heydon as agent; Mar­ cus Long founded a loan agency; and H. Hellofs began a butcher shop. 49

This short list illustrates that Gretna was not simply an Anglo Saxon enclave, but offered many opportunities to German speaking businessmen. From the beginning of Gretna, Mennonites also became involved in the commercial life in the town.

Municipal Government

The introduction of municipal government to the West Reserve met with divergent responses, which were both a reflection and cause of church conflict on the reserve. While the Fuerstenland group, which had settled on the reserve in 1875-76, had accepted the church leadership of Johann Wiebe and the colony administration of Obervorsteher Mueller, this was not unanimous. There were a number of dissenters within Johann Wiebe's Reinlaender Church, and there was a growing opposi­ tion to the authority of Obervorsteher Issak Mueller from the Bergthaler who had moved from the East Reserve to the West Reserve after 1878.

The Bergthaler were freer of group control than the Reinlaender since they were miles away from the authority of the East Reserve church. Consequently, these newer settlers were unwilling to conform to the strict confines of the Reinlaender Church and its colony admin­ istration. Gradually a new Bergthaler Church evolved on the West Reserve in the early 1880's.

Conflicts between the two churches originally arose when the Bergthaler Church began accepting members who had been excom­ municated by the Reinlaender Church. This seriously affected the authority of the Reinlaender bishops, and hence the social organization of the villages. Because each farmer owned his own land the last gasp method of maintaining group cohesion was the threat of excommunica­ tion from the church. Since leaving the village to live on one's own quarter section, or selling land to an outsider would both seriously disrupt the village system, both were punishable by excommunication among the Reinlaender.

After 1878 the threat of village breakup became very real as