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  1. Ibid., October 15 and September 15, 1882.
  2. Ibid., February 27, 1884.
  3. John Warkentin, op. cit., page 165.
  4. Rundshau, July 15, 1881.
  5. Red River Valley Echo, November 25, 1970.
  1. Brandon Daily Mail, February 27, 1890; Commercial, 1882-1884; Nordwesten, January 1899.
  1. Peter Elias, op. cit., Vol. II page 18.
  2. Ibid., page 11.
  3. Alan C. Ewart, "The Municipal History of Manitoba", University of Toronto Studies:

History and Economics Vol. II, No.3 (1907), page 6.

  1. The spelling of Rineland was changed to the present form the next year.
  2. Statutes of Manitoba 1880, 43 Vic. Cap. I.
  3. Ibid, 1881,44 Vic. Cap. 3.
  4. Adolph Ens, op. cit., page 122.
  5. Ibid., pages 123-124.
  6. Rundshau, February 22, 1888.
  1. Adolph Ens, op. cit., page 125. Peter Elias in his memoirs mentions that Giesbrecht in fact was elected and acted as reeve in 1882 and 1883. No proof of this could be found however.
  1. Rundshau, February 1, 1888.
  2. Manitoba Mountaineer, February 9, 1884.
  3. Minutes of the Municipality of Douglas, January 8, 1884.
  4. Ibid., April l, 1884.
  5. Minutes of the Municipality of Rhineland, January 26, 1884.
  6. Ibid., April 15 and 29, 1884.
  7. Adolph Ens, op. cit., page 131.
  8. Minutes of the Municipality of Rhineland, November 1884.
  9. Adolph Ens, op. cit., page 133.
  1. This term is used by E. K. Francis to describe the arrangement between the two. In Francis' account, however, much is made of the progressive transition from one to the other: from Voios! to Municipality. The main point here is that both existed side by side, and that conservative and progressive factions were present in the West Reserve from the first.