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independent, defeated the Liberal candidate in the Rosenfeld Constitu­ ency. Even after the Conservative Party gained power in Manitoba, Rhineland continued to return Liberal members.

Table 13 Provincial Elections 1888-1900
Reg. Total
Year Constituency Members Elected Voters Votes Lib. Cons. Ind.
1888 Rosenfeld Enoch Winkler 164 106 58
1892 Rosenfeld Enoch Winkler 738 303 172 131
Rhineland Valentine Winkler 1006 260 186 74
1896 Rosenfeld Enoch Winkler 871 276 170 106
Rhineland Valentine Winkler 1213 311 229 82
1899 Rosenfeld William Hespeler 988 499 241 258*
Rhineland Valentine Winkler 1231 423 271 152
* Independent Conservative

Source: Statement of Votes: Thirty-first General Election October 11, 1977.

In the Federal sphere before 1900 the R.M. of Rhineland was part of a much larger riding, Lisgar, and did not affect the results signifi­ cantly.

Schools and the Formation of the Mennonite Educational Institute

Education like government and politics was perceived quite dif­ ferently by different groups within the R.M. of Rhineland. The involvement of the municipality in the formation of school districts after 1884 and the introduction of higher education served to exacerbate these differences.

According to the 1881 Public Schools Act of Manitoba, it was the duty of the municipal council to establish and alter the school districts within its boundaries. 64 To further assist in the formation of school districts in Rhineland, William Rempel , a former teacher and secretary treasurer of the newly created R.M. of Rhineland, was appointed Inspector of Mennonite schools in 1885. Within a year of his appoint­ ment there were ten district schools on the West Reserve. 65 Despite this increase, Rempel was basically pessimistic as most Mennonites still opposed district schools thinking these schools would lead their chil­ dren away from Mennonite teachings.

In some of the Old Colony villages, district schools aroused bitter opposition. Following the incorporation of the School District of Schanzenfeld in 1885, only four ratepayers appeared at the first school board meeting and one of the elected trustees refused to perform his duties. In addition to this passive resistance, thirteen ratepayers in the

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