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migration, beginning in the early 1890's, continued right up until the first world war.

Mennonite emigrants leaving by train for Saskatchewan in 1902.

The main causes of the land shortage in Rhineland were population growth in the 1880's and 1890's, rising land prices, and expanding farm sizes. Between 1891 and 1901 the population of the R.M. of Rhineland increased from 7,119 to 9,157.71 With this increase, many of the unset­ tled lands in the northern part of the municipality began to be taken up.

Along with this expansion came increasing farm sizes. While most farms consisted of 160 acres in 1875, by 1884 the average acreage had jumped to 19l.18 and to 231.36 acres by 1905.72

Further aggravating the land shortage was the rising price of land.

While a 160 acre farm could be bought for $800 to $1,000 in 1885, by 1889 this price had jumped to $1,500,73 and by 1900 was as high as $5,000.74 These high prices combined with the scarcity of unsettled land created a sizable population of landless in the Mennonite villages. By the mid 90's "Landlose" or landless had become a separate category in the R.M. of Rhineland Assessment Rolls.

Manitoba Mennonites waiting for their tickets at the Winkler CPR Station during the spring of 1902. They eventually settled near Rosthern, Hague and Osler, Saskatch­ ewan.