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wavees and greys. In 1928, the flight lasted 42 minutes, and in thirty­ rive, 28 minutes. In 1945, the flight had passed over and was fading into the horizon towards Lang's Valley in 16 minutes, while last year a seemingly disorganized flock, very thinly scattered, passed over in one and one quarter minutes.

It is not the loss of habitat that has reduced the numbers of these birds to this point; it is simply senseless hunting and lack of foresight by those in authority. A few more seasons of hunting will practically exterminate these monarchs from the central migratory route, in which Whitewater Lake is located. Too late, sportsmen and naturalists alike will realize the fact that a small percentage of the population in our time has repeated the folly of earlier generations, who exterminated the vast quantity of passenger pigeons. Closely following this was the extermination of the heath-hen and the whooping crane, until only twenty-seven birds remain.

There are still sufficient geese left to make a fairly quick comeback. Several successive closed seasons would greatly help to bring back the big flocks we knew a decade past, and we would again be able to see those long V's fading into the evening twilight, as they wing their way to rest on Whitewater Lake. If steps aren't taken immediately to conserve what is left, then the responsibility for their disappearance rests squarely on the shoulders of hunters who fail to observe sportsmanship, and upon those in authority today.

More sanctuaries are needed to conserve our waterfowl; and small areas comprising three to four acres, with suitable habitat on each farm, would greatly help to bring back our upland game. The co-operation of every wildlife and naturalist society, as well as of our governments, is needed to restore that which is so much a part of our heritage

NATURE OF SOIL

What would the earth be like if there were no soil. Without soil there would be no life, for all living forms, man or beast, depend on the plants of field and forest for subsistence, and the growth of plants in turn depends on the productivity of the soil and climate.

The vital importance of soils is obvious if it is remembered that a nation cannot obtain support in a desert, that rock without soil is barren waste, and that the earth below the soil is as lifeless as the moon. A nation derives from the soil and the land not only material, but mental and spiritual values, and hence a nation must be vitally concerned with the wise utilization of its soils and maintaining the strength, courage and resourcefulness and well being of its rural people in an undespoiled countryside.

The ownership of land is a privilege, but it is also a responsi­ bility. Soil fertility in the case of the prairie soils (which we inherited but did not create) is the result of the interaction of soil,

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