This page is a text version of the Beckoning Hills History Book. This is the story of the Turtle Mountain Area of Manitoba. You can get a PDF copy of the book on our full version page. The PDF copy is an exact page by page representation of the original book. This text version has been reformated for the web and contains text recognition mistakes. These mistakes do not appear in the full version. The full version also includes each image in the original book.

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climate and vegetation over thousands of years under a scheme of conservation controlled by nature. This free gift of natural fertility, together with the vision and energy of the pioneer, made the development of western Canada possible.

The sons and grandsons of the pioneers however now hold, not the original virgin lands, but arable fields modified by culture. In the Boissevain district we have three distinct types of soil. Imme­ diately surrounding Whitewater Lake is an area of soils developed on lacustrine deposits which vary in texture from fine loam to clay predominating. These are fairly fertile soils and well suited to the growing of cereal grains. In very wet or dry seasons they are very difficult to work. They have good water retention capacity. In wet years when drainage is a problem they may become slightly alkaline in nature. In general their value for agricultural production depends upon the degree of freedom from alkali salts.

The largest portion of the district is in what is called the Was­ kada Till Plain Area, extending from the Turtle Mountains on the south and surrounding the Whitewater soils. This area may be divided into three sections: (a) Gently rolling in the southern portion, (b) the smooth, more or less level area in the central portion, (c) the undulating section in the northern portion. These soils vary in texture from a loam to a clay loam depending on topography.

The Waskada Till Area constitutes an open plain and was developed under grass vegetation. The land is practically all arable except for the ravines, water runways, and depressed areas. It has been largely broken up and is used extensively for the production of cereal grains. These soils are naturally high in fertility. The main soil problems are periodic climatic drought, loss of water by run-off and soil drifting, Periodic retirement of a portion of the acreage to grass mixtures are needed to control soil drifting and maintain fertility.

The third type of soil found in the district is in the Turtle Mountain area. Here we have soils developed under tree growth rather than grassland vegetation. They are designated as grey wooded soils and vary from a loam to clay loam in texture. In these soils the top soil is much shallower than in soils developed under grasses. Due to the fact that the topography of this area is very rough and hilly, general agricultural development has not been as great as on the open plains area. A small acreage only has been broken and put under cultivation. The natural fertility is high but land use is limited. This area is suited primarily to mixed farming, where a high portion of the cultivated land should be seeded to grasses and legumes. Their main problem is erosion. Farmers in the

Fred McKinney Thr~l1l1ing Outfit, 1906 - Photo courtesey Mrs. Ina McKinney -13-