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A PIONEER OF 1882 By Frances Code

The events which led my grandfather, Thomas Code of Innis­ ville, Ontario, to bring his family to Manitoba in the spring of 1882 had been gathering momentum for some time before that. His brother-in-law, Abe Code, a former land surveyor for the Dominion Government, had, with his wife, already taken up residence in the Morris district and their letter home to Ontario extolled the virtues and opportunities of life in the opening west. Eventually it was decided that Thomas Code's eldest son, John, should go as far as Morris and send back a report. John's enthusiasm matched that of his uncle and he too wrote home urging his father to come. Plans for carrying out this new venture soon took definite shape while the household effects were packed for shipment and thus it hap­ pened that when the C.P.R. train pulled out of Carleton Place on March 29th, 1882, bound for the "Northwest," Thomas Code, his wife and family of six, and two nephews were among the passengers.

In those days the railway wasn't built north of the lakes so they had to go by way of Detroit, Chicago, Minneapolis and other U.S. cities in order to reach Winnipeg, but in a little over eight days they arrived safely. After a short rest in Winnipeg, which was in its boom days, they continued on to Morris by ox-team. Abe Code had arranged for them to rent a farm about nine miles north of Morris and there they sowed their first wheat in Manitoba. As soon as the crop was in, at the end of April, Thomas Code was ready to proceed farther west in search of a permanent location. Leaving part of his family at Morris he set out with two of his sons, John and William,

. Albert (my father), his nephews and his brother-in-law along what was then known as the Boundary Commission Trail. Their wagon was stocked with farm implements and other necessities required for a trip of possibly three weeks and drawn by four oxen hitched abreast. The original plan was to go to Deloraine, where Abe Code knew the man in the land titles office, and from there to Moose Jaw, to which point quite a few settlers were heading.

The first day, over difficult ground, they covered only thirteen miles, but afterward made steady progress till the Pilot Mound district was reached and there they met with their first flat tire, so as to speak. The right hind wagon tire suddenly went rolling off and before they realized what had happened the wheel had broken clown completely. This could easily have proved a serious set-back because they didn't carry a spare, but fortunately they were able to borrow a hind wheel from a farmer living nearby. A greater mishap was still to befall them before they reached Deloraine, how­ ever. They came one afternoon to a slough area which appeared to be about half a mile across. It had been covered with water earlier in the season and alkali beds could be seen here and there. After

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