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learned well, however, and found later after summer holidays, that they had a hard time getting back to speaking Swedish at school.

. They adapted to their circumstances, however, and fit In to their new settlement quite well. The first spring they bought animals and machinery from a neighbour. Their first crop was threshed by Jim Proven. His separator and steam engine were drawn with horses. Crops were often frozen before they could be taken off. Steve cut logs which were made into lumber at the sawmills at Scan­ dinavia, then he hauled the lumber down to Minnedosa and brought back supplies as needed. With this income and a few cows, chickens and pigs they managed to survive. Altogether Steve broke up 75 acres. In 1909, they bought a stump puller. This made clearing the land quite a bit easier. He also did some custom work, and worked on the road at Danvers. About 1910, they remodelled the shanty, adding an upstairs and building a new kitchen.

There were a number of bachelors who made the Kalberg home their meeting place - Matt Olson, who had a threshing outfit; Billy Twamley, an old Englishman who came across as a "Barnardo boy"; and Johannson, a blacksmith. And, in true Swedish tradition, it was a steady serving of coffee and lunch, coffee and lunch.

The town line ran up from Minnedosa, 1 1/2 miles west of the Kalberg home. In winter, a shortcut was used from the south that ran through the Kalberg yard, about twenty yards from the house. The children had to be careful where they left sleighs and such things, or quite possibly they would have to make new ones, the old ones being run over in the dark. This road was also used by local fellows who had some unusual good luck hunting. These hunters would wait until they were sure everyone along the road was finished chores and in for the night before starting home. By doing this they could avoid personal embarrassment and save the friendly neigh­ bourhood game warden some of the same. One night fairly late the Kalbergs heard a commotion outside. An investigation told them that a runaway team had gone through the yard full tilt, without taking time to open and close the gates made of rails. There was the usual debris left in the wake of such happenings - bits of harness, a sleighbox, and so on. Also, Adolf came across a good sized quarter of meat in the garden by the road. Now, Steve wasn't one to waste anything so he carried the meat into the shed to keep it safe from the dogs. The following day one of the neighbours from farther south came by, picking up anything that was still any good. No one ever asked about that quarter of meat, though, and somehow fixing the gates didn't seem as hard a job as it could have been.

The family belonged to the Scandinavia Lutheran Church, where Ellen and Arthur were confirmed. The children attended the Scandinavia school, and Steve sat on the school board for a number of years.

In 1918, the family moved to Bagot and established a home 1 1/2 miles north of the town. Mr. and Mrs. Kalberg lived at Bagot, where their sons all farmed, until they retired to Winnipeg in 1937. They died there, a month apart, in 1956, and are buried in Chapel Lawn, Winnipeg.

Of their children, Ellen married Henry Pehrson, a

464

The Stephen Kolberg Family. Left to Right: Ellen, Norma, Daisy, Henry, Arthur, Adolph, and Walter. Insert: Eleanor.

building contractor, and lives in Winnipeg with her two daughters. Henry died in 1982 and is buried at Chapel lawn.

Arthur married Daisy Longstreet of Bagot. They established a farm two miles west of Bagot where he still lives with his son, and his daughter lives a mile away. Daisy died in 1977, and is buried in Beaver Creek Cemetery, Beaver.

Adolf married Eleanor Longstreet, and they lived at Bagot until they retired to Portage la Prairie. Adolf died in 1976, Eleanor in 1970, leaving no family. They are buried at Evergreen Memorial Garden, Portage.

Walter married Norma Smale, and they lived at Bagot until they retired to Portage la Prairie. They have a daughter in Ottawa and a son in Stoughton, Saskat­ chewan.

The memories of the family are of hard times and a meagre living. But above these are the memories of good neighbours, many, many interesting events, and a determination to succeed. The family holidays were not trips to far away places but church functions, Tem­ perance picnics, and visiting among neighbours. There was challenge in adversity and this challenge they met head on. As in the Indian prayer - "the road didn't always rise to meet them, but the Great Spirit surely held them in the cup of his hand".

Life is easier than you think. All you have to do is accept the impossible, do without the indispensible, and bear the intolerable.