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detriment to the country and contrary to modem progress. 26 The Metis were regarded as thriftless, pleasure loving, nomadic, and unable to adjust to commercial agriculture. 27
By 1888 over 90 percent of Metis land had been alienated both legally and illegally and many had left the province. The Mennonites on the other hand prospered on their reserves, which were closed to outside settlement, and were considered progressive, honest, and industrious; people who paid off their debts, paid in cash and were prudent buyers. 28 Thus, while Elder Johann Wiebe may have seen Mennonite immigra tion to Manitoba as a means of halting growing secularism and moderni ty, Winnipeg businessmen saw the Mennonites as paragons of modem development. To some extent both were right.
FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER 1
1. Winnipeg Free Press, Oct. 3, 1879. No specific date is given for the inspection but it occurred before the arrival of immigrants in July of 1875.
2. O.I.e. 957. Report of the Committee of the Privy Council approved by his excellency the Governor General on the 13th of August 1873. This document is reproduced in Peter D. Zacharias, Reinland: An Experience in Community. (Reinland Centennial Committee, 1976), page 30.
Echo, November 25, 1970.
7. The Papers of the Palliser Expedition 1857-1860, ed. Irene Sprye, (Toronto: Volume XXXXIV Champlain Society, 1968), pages 102-103.
11. Esther Epp-Tiessen, Altona: The Story of a Prairie Town. (Altona: D. W. Friesen and Sons, 1982), page 2.
IS. E. K. Francis, op. cit., page 20.
16. The Description of Mennonite Life in Russia is taken from E. K. Francis op. cit., and Esther Epp- Tiessen, op. cit.