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21. These immigration figures come from W. L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, 2nd ed., (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967), pages 176-177.

1875 - 11,970

1876 - 3,000 to 4,000 1879 - 11,500

1880 - 18,000

1881 - 28,600

  1. Peter D. Zachaias, op. cit., pages 29 and 58.
  2. Ibid., page 58.
  1. A complete description of the incident and other Metis-Mennonite contacts can be found in Lawrence Klippenstein, "Manitoba Metis and Mennonite Immigrants First Con­ tacts". Mennonite Quarterly Review. Vol. 48 (1974).

An account of the incident can also be found in Henry J. Gerbrandt, Adventure in Faith, (Altona: 1970); and Tony Doerksen, "White Horse Plains Dominion Day Confrontation" , Mennonite Mirror III, Jan.-Feb. (1974).

A more theoretical and controversial interpretation of Mennonite settlement in relation to Native Peoples can be found in Leo Driedger, "Native Rebellion and Mennonite Invasion:

An examination of Two Canadian River Valleys", Mennonite Quarterly Review, Vol. 46 (1972); and Calvin Reddekopp, "Mennonite Displacement of Indigenous Peoples: An Historical and Sociological Analysis" , Canadian Ethnic Studies. 14-2 (1982).

  1. Manitoba Free Press, August I, 1874.
  1. Testimony of Heber Archibald; Commission of Inquiry investigating The Administra­ tion of Justice 1882. Provincial Archives of Manitoba.

27. This characterization of the Metis can be found in many accounts from Alexander Ross' Red River Settlement (London: 1856); to G.F.G. Stanley's The Birth of Western Canada. (Toronto, 1936).

28. The Commercial, Dec. 31, 1888.