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dollars but both wages and hours of work were much more reasonable than in Russia." These poorer immigrants were assisted on their jour­ ney to Manitoba by relatives already in Manitoba, or the congregations in Russia who were trying to alleviate their land crisis."

Mennonite immigrants, however, were not the only new settlers in the R.M. of Rhineland during this period. German Lutherans from Polish Russia were also entering the area in significant numbers. These Lutheran peasants, coming mostly from Volhynia, settled in the Rosen­ feld area in the early 1890's. Having heard of opportunities in Canada from neighbouring Mennonites and Canadian railway agents, these' immigrants settled in Manitoba at places such as Winnipeg, Emerson, Beausejour, Brunkild, Morris, Friedensfeld and in the R.M. of Rhine­ land at Rosenfeld, Plum Coulee, and Gretna. 22

These Lutheran immigrants had come to Canada for reasons very similar to those of the earlier Mennonites. Two factors were of para­ mount importance: the availability of land and the freedom from com­ pulsory military service.

Most German Lutherans in the western provinces of Russia had eked out an existence on plots of land which were only 20-30 acres in size. These lots were leased from Russian or Polish nobles and barely enabled the peasant to support his family. When these leases came due in the 1890's many German Lutherans left for Canada. The other major reason for coming to Canada was the compulsory military service in Russia, which took many youths thousands of miles from home. Un­ able to speak Russian many of these German speaking Lutherans often received brutal treatment at the hands of Russian officers. 23

Those Lutherans that settled in the R.M. of Rhineland came because they wanted open land not bush. Tired of clearing wooded land in Russia, they settled near Rosenfeld where land was ready for the plow. Another attraction of the area was the plentiful work available among the Mennonites in the area. Friendly and mutually advantageous relations between the Mennonites and German Lutherans went back to Russia and had existed in southern Manitoba since the Mennonite immigration in 1875. In that year a German Lutheran by the name of Otto Pappel accompanied the Mennonite group that founded the village of Neuanlage. Here he and his family worked for Mennonite farmers until he was able to buy land in the area in 1897.24 This pattern was repeated many times in the 1890's.

The first German Lutheran to settle in the Rosenfeld area was a man named Hoffman. He came to the area in 1891 and began to work for Mennonite farmers. Other families, generally relatives or friends, fol­ lowed serving as farm workers and carpenters for the more established

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