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clubs, proudly proclaiming their superiority when their team beat Gretna's."

Towns in Rhineland were not without a wilder side. All railway towns in Rhineland had liquor stores and taverns and fights were occasionally reported in the newspapers. At Gretna's fair in 1888 an American got into a brawl and was killed when someone hit him over the head with a wooden hammer. 40

Gretna's location on the International Boundary and the high tariff resulted in considerable smuggling in the area. A wooded section on the border, due south of Gretna, was appropriately named Smugglers' Point The traffic in tobacco, cord wood, heating oil and farm machin­ ery was so heavy that merchants began to complain. The transcontinen­ tal railway along with high tariffs had already cut Gretna's business prospects enough that businessmen did not want to have to compete with smugglers. In 1890 the North West Mounted Police were stationed in the village of Reinland from where they regularly patrolled the boundary. In an effort to curb smuggling further west, another customs office was opened at the point where the Great Northern Railway entered Canada at Walhalla."

Other frowned upon or illicit activities convinced the municipal council to pass a by-law to preserve order and suppress nuisances in public places. This law dealt specifically with morality, decency, loud behavior and houses of ill repute and gambling."

One incident, occurring in Altona in 1898, gives some idea of this unrecorded aspect of town life. On November 15 it was discovered that someone had broken into the municipal safe in H. Loeppky's General Store in Altona and stolen $1,105. On investigation the Municipal Commissioner's Department found that $4,112.62 was actually missing and traced it to a misappropriation of the municipal clerk, Geo. Limp­ recht. On the verge of being apprehended, Limprecht shot himself in the back of P. Striemer's Liquor Store. H. H. Hamm, a long time municipal clerk himself and municipal historian, attributed the motive of the crime to gambling and habitual indulgence in vitamin "W". 44

Town life was also fraught with other perils. In 1892 Gretna was rocked by a major crisis when smallpox was discovered. The town was immediately placed under quarantine and only trainmen and through passengers from the United States were allowed in and out of Gretna. The disease was traced to a small Chinese laundry where twenty people were discovered living in a single building. Under the direction of Dr. McKenty of Gretna and Dr. Donovan of Neche, a temporary hospital was immediately built east of Gretna. This hospital housed the Chinese and Lewis Calder, who had also contracted the disease. On the follow-

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