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geese and ducks and cranes, called by many "wild turkeys." During winters when the snow was deep, we often threw grain to feed the prairie chicken which harbored around the straw stacks and buildings in search of food.

, The first crop was sown by hand broadcast. Threshing in those old days was a very busy time with huge gangs of men to be boarded for days at a time. The earliest threshing machines required two men to cut the bands as they entered the machine and a man and team to pile the straw. A later grain separator cut the bands and a blower piled the straw. Most early day threshing gangs averaged twenty men. No wonder the women were busy!

Before it was possible to buy coal, all the firewood was cut and hauled out of the bush during the winter months. They had sheds and shacks as shelters for their horses and themselves while they camped in the woods for days at a time while getting their wood out. One of these winter camps was named Limerick.

With settlement sparse, and windbreaks not yet grown, bliz­ zards were much dreaded as they blew unchecked across the lonely miles of prairie, often so thick one could not see a hand before the face. At such times, with only coal oil lanterns for meagre light, they would tie a rope from house to barn as a guide. Without such a precaution, many men were known to have become lost and perished in these storms.

In those long ago days, people had to make their Own amuse­ ment. In winter, they had dancing parties in the different homes. In summer, it was picnics with the main feature being the ice cream freezer, laboriously turned by hand-but the resulting delicacy rnade the effort worth while. Our district picnic ground was Glover's Grove.

Submitted by Miss Mary Johnstone


In writing this biography I am pleased to have the opportunity to pay tribute to those early settlers who pioneered in the Boisse­ vain district. To these men and women we are deeply indebted.

My father, Peter Joseph Cantelon, was one of these pioneers.

Born in Huron County, Ontario, in June of 1857, he was 25 years old when he arrived in Manitoba in the spring of 1882. In company with Dick McIntosh, who later married a sister, they set out on foot from Brandon to locate their land. Arriving at their destination a search for the government land stakes proved fruitless. Samuel Oke had settled on land across the creek and it was to him that my father finally appealed for help. Mr. Oke suffered from rheumatism and did not dare enter the cold, chilly water. Nothing daunted, my father stripped and piggy-backed his new neighbor across. The markers found, Mr. Oke was returned high and dry to his own