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smouldering plow tongue until it dropped in two pieces. He success­ fully finished his fire break with the front wheels of the plow swinging freely. His wife meantime, had been fighting the fire with clothing soaked in a bucket of water.

A ravine linking the Souris River with Whitewater Lake passed through Mr. Dickson's homestead. Today, drift soil and graded roads have stopped the flow of this ravine but at times it often ran quite swiftly in the early spring. Travellers were often required to swim their horses or oxen, if they wished to cross.

The countryside with its changes also brought many changes to the wildlife. Mr. Dickson related that he found it necessary to frighten flocks of cranes (including both Whooping crane and the Sandbill) from hsi stooks quite often. The cranes enjoyed climbing over the stooks and scattering the sheaves in all directions. In the early morning, Mr. Dickson often said that he merely had to raise the window to shoot his meat for the day. Ducks were plentiful over a large slough close to his home. After dressing, he would find Kaiser, his dog, waiting on the step with the kill. Pinnated grouse were plentiful and easily taken. Mr. Dickson recalled one hunt at Whitewater Lake in which they shot until the gun barrels were hot, their bag taken, and still the geese passed over in thousands, Flights seemed to be continuous.

During the years preceding the arrival of the rails to Boisse­ vain, settlers in the Primrose district hauled their grain to Souris. There it was milled by a stone grinder. Brandon was the chief source of supplies and market for grain over and above what was required for home use. The list of supplies for winter was given very careful consideration as one trip was usually all that could be made in the fall. Mr. Dickson related the mishap of a neighbor who returned home from his supply trip to Brandon to find that a nail had worked upward from his wagon bunk into a five gallon can of kerosene. During that winter the family derived a fair light from pork tallow candles. Those who misjudged the quantity of flour required between trips, resorted to boiled wheat as a staple food.

In 1888 the settlers suffered a severe blow on the night of August 8th when a very heavy frost completely destroyed the crops. .Mr. Dickson declared that the next day he would have gladly exchanged his homestead for a suit of clothing had anyone made such a proposition.

He improved his finances somewhat by working for Mr. Heaslip for two years, when not required to work on his homestead. Later he purchased land in the Heaslip district.

In 1891, Miss Stella Wright of Brockton, Ontario, came west to visit her sister, Mrs. John Thompson. The John Thompson home­ stead was on 16-4-20 and the nearest on the trail eastward from Mr. Dickson's. In 1892 Miss Wright and Mr. Dickson were united in marriage.