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In view of the fact that there was no educational system and no written records kept, it is logical to assume that the Chiefs of tribes entrusted the 'son in line' to perpetuate history by relating stories to him, which in turn would be passed on to another generation.

Movies ridiculously tend to give the impression that Indians and white people were in a constant state of warfare in the hills and over the plains in the early days. All Indians were warlike according to the pictures! Maybe the plot would be less exciting if they showed the peace-loving tribes! But, what is more important - maybe children wouldn't grow up with the idea that all Indians are 'the bad men' and all whites 'the good men'.

The early Indians resented invasion of their land and protected it, as we would do today if it became necessary to do so!

It might also make for a greater understanding if we recognize the fact that battles were fought between white men and white men and between Indians and Indians (of different tribes) in the early days for that same reason.

Former Chief George Daniels contributed the following interest­ ing information:

"The area around Portage was first Mandan territory. They came from North Dakota.

In 1860 the Mandans were chased by the Assiniboines to the Swan Lake area where they grew vegetables. They were then chased from Swan Lake to Devil's Lake. The Sioux chased them from that location to the Black Hills.

The Mandans were a peace-loving people, and not grea t fighters.

This was the reason they lost their battles and had to move on.

About 1860, the Chippewas of Ontario sent scouts west to find a good buffalo area. This part of the country had great herds of buffalo, so the Chippewas started a battle with the Assiniboines to take possession of the coveted territory.

The Assiniboines tried to hold their ground and many battles ensued, but they were outnumbered by reinforcements of Chippewas from the east. They were forced to move further west where they still exist today as part of the Sioux Nation.

When the Chippewas came here, the French gave them the name "Saulteaux" which means "Plain Indian".

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