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from 1922 to 1927. He said: Quote- "They bury their dead in very shallow graves about 4Y2 feet deep. At both ends of the grave they leave a ledge of 18 inches from the bottom - the ledge would measure 18H x 24". On it they laid heavy poplar logs about 8" in diameter so that the coffin was in an open chamber, 24') wide, 18" deep and long enough for the coffin. On the top of these overlay logs they would spread old mats or a horse blanket, then fill up the grave, making quite a raised mound over each grave. Then they made a sort of canopy of rough boards, frequently covered with cloth. On one end of the gable they would cut a little star-shaped hole large enough to admit a hand. Frequently they placed inside, almost over the head of the deceased, several plugs of smoking tobacco. Relations would set small fires for 3 evenings in succession to burn through the night.

The honor of being chief of a tribe was hereditary until 1940 when elections for this position in this area started to take place.

courtesy of Manitoba Archives.

Many do not know the significance of totem poles which they may see in many places in Canada. "Totem" is a universal word among Indians," says former Chief George Daniels. "It is their way of asking a stranger what family tree he comes from. A totem pole represents one man's family tree."